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Compounding Pharmacies' Potential to Create Graft Storage Solutions for Bypass Surgeries

Author(s):  Guth Michael AS

Issue:  Sep/Oct 2015 - Volume 19, Number 5
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Abstract:  Several studies have addressed the optimal storage conditions for vascular grafts during bypass surgery. These studies have repeatedly shown that placing vascular graft conduits in isotonic saline solutions, and to a lesser extent in heparinized autologous blood, leads to a profound decline in endothelial cell viability. Endothelial damage to vein grafts can occur at multiple points during a coronary artery bypass graft surgery procedure: graft harvesting, handling, flushing, storage, anastomosis, and arterialization (e.g., damage caused by exposure to arterial blood pressure). This damage to endothelial cells causes the release of pro-inflammatory chemical signals that trigger thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and accelerated graft atherosclerosis, all of which ultimately contribute to graft failure. Cardiothoracic surgeons performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and vascular surgeons performing peripheral artery bypass graft surgery have attempted to overcome the damage to the vascular grafts by using buffers to maintain the physiological pH of the storage solution. However, the endothelial layers in the grafts would benefit from having proper oxygenation and antioxidants added to the storage solution. Compounding pharmacies can perform a vital role in ensuring the patency of the vascular grafts by creating compounded flushing and storage solutions that have an optimal mix of nitric oxide substrates, antioxidants, and other nutrients for the endothelium. Maintaining structural and functional viability of the endothelia in grafts by using an appropriate vessel storage medium would lead to improved long-term graft patency.

Related Keywords: Michael A.S. Guth, PhD, JD, coronary artery bypass graft, CABG, peripheral artery bypass graft, saphenous vein harvest, vascular graft, blood vessels, arterial blockage, cardioplegic solutions, graft flushing and storage solution, amino acids, Krebs-Henseleit buffer, Krebs-Henseleit solution, class II medical device, basal salt solutions, irrigation, transport, cellular osmotic balance, cell metabolism, formulation, preservation of endothelial cell function, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cGMP, nitric oxide substrates, adenosine triphosphate, ATP, arginine, citrulline malate, superoxide dismutase, SOD, luteolin, ellagic acid, punicic acid, punicalagin, angiogenesis, antioxidants

Related Categories: FORMULATIONS, CARDIOLOGY

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